In the years 1894, 1900, and 1925 - The Japanese imperial government promulgated a series of laws known collectively as the ‘Peace Preservation Laws’. These laws were principally concerned with frustrating the organization of union, socialist, anarchist, and communist organizations for threatening the ‘Kokutai’.
In the deepening imperial relations of the country, the Army expedition in China typified the extreme nationalism that came to be the emblem of this era in modern times. However, at this time, the Japanese government actively courted the inclusion of leftists in critical organizations such as the Showa Kenkyukai and Mantetsu. Even the most well-understood imperialist concept, the Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere was the (nominal) conception of a Marxist intellectual.
Why was the concept of Tenkō so critical for the Imperial authorities and structure at this point, when they had publicly declared these political elements to be traitorous? Why did they play such a massive role in an empire which they actively rejected in theory?
Another interesting trend to account for in the nascent communist politics that existed in the Empire was the split between Rono-ha and Koza-ha factions, the former being an independent program arguing that Japanese material conditions had progressed to the state of embodying contemporary bourgeois property relations while the latter was a faction borne out of the support of the Soviet Union and the Third Internationale (Comintern) that stated that the Japanese Empire existed in semi-feudal conditions, owing to the oligarchical structure and foundations of the Meiji Restoration, and was thus an unfeasible thought to advocate for socialist development before a bourgeois revolution had taken place. The Koza-ha dominated JCP is what we know today as the Japanese Communist Party. Especially in the post-war era, they suffered renewed surveillance by the American occupational force, and were subject to the geopolitical weal of the other socialist states, to the detriment of the health of the party and the independent Japanese socialist tradition.
Would love to hear peoples thoughts about these questions and considerations.