Ok. It's from Spengler. He thought that you could see the difference between civilizations in their art and mathematics.
< Apollonian Civilisation is focused around Ancient Greece and Rome. Spengler saw its world view as being characterised by appreciation for the beauty of the human body, and a preference for the local and the present moment.
< Magian Civilisation includes the Jews from about 400BC, early Christians and various Arabian religions up to and including Islam. Its world feeling revolved around the concept of world as cavern, epitomised by the domed Mosque, and a preoccupation with essence. Spengler saw the development of this civilisation as being distorted by too influential presence of older cultures, the initial vigorous expansionary impulses of Islam being in part a reaction against this.
< Faustian Civilisation began in Western Europe around the 10th century and according to Spengler such has been its expansionary power that by the 20th century it was covering the entire earth, with only a few Regions where Islam provides an alternative world view. The world feeling of Faustian civilisation is inspired by the concept of infinitely wide and profound space, the yearning towards distance and infinity.
A gothic cathedral that strives for height can be seen as faustian. And a greek sculpture that focuses on the body and can be seen from multiple angles can be seen as apollonian. Greek mathematics was this closed euclidian space, whereas contemporary mathematics is boundless.
But at a cursory glance, there are some discrepancies. For instance, the khmer probably invented the zero.
And the hindu matematics and religion is all about this really huge and really small numbers. For instance, the Kali Yuga (the shortest and the worst of them) is supposed to last 432000 years. So in comparision to Spengler's idea that a civilization last for 1000 years, he's peanuts.
So Spengler basically says that the reason civilziation X didn't do Y wasn't the lack of knowledge nor agency, but that the rathe didn't. And some people [ citation needed
] have argued that Russia isn't western in the real sense. But given the soviet space propaganda, I'd say it's faustian per excellence.